Category Archives: IGBT News

Walking hard, Huawei invests in the core field of lithography machines!

Recently, Huawei’s Hubble Technology Investment Co., Ltd. has invested in Beijing Keyi Hongyuan Optoelectronics Technology Co., Ltd. The latter’s main business involves the core technology of lithography machines, which means that Huawei has begun to formally deploy the field of lithography machines.

According to the company’s industrial and commercial information, Huawei’s Hubble Technology Investment Co., Ltd. has recently invested in Beijing Keyi Hongyuan Optoelectronics Technology Co., Ltd. Although the name of Keyi Hongyuan is not familiar to people outside the industry, its main business involves the core technology of lithography machines, which means that Huawei has begun to formally deploy the field of lithography machines.

Specifically, the registered capital of Beijing Keyi Hongyuan Optoelectronics Technology Co., Ltd. increased from 120 million yuan to 201.6 million yuan, an increase of 68%. Among them, Hubble Investment held 4.7619% of the shares, becoming the seventh largest shareholder.

secret and great

In recent years, under the continuous pressure from the United States, the dilemma of “lack of cores and few souls” in China has intensified, and the huge impact on national enterprises represented by Huawei is obvious to all. Fortunately, in the field of operating systems, Huawei has released HarmonyOS for all-smart scenarios, and is committed to building a “universal system” for the interconnection of everything; in the field of chips, Huawei HiSilicon has a top domestic chip design team, but it is limited by domestic chips. The manufacturing industry is lagging behind, and Huawei’s mobile phone business has been severely hit.

In the past two years, Huawei has been “struggling”, but has never stopped saving itself, and officially established Hubble Technology Investment Co., Ltd. in 2019, mainly for investment services. As of the end of last year, Hubble Technology has invested in 25 companies including Shandong Tianyue, Dongwei semiconductor, Tianke Heda, Siruipu, Dongxin Semiconductor, and Smartway, covering EDA, semiconductor materials, third It is not difficult to see Huawei’s determination to get rid of “stuck neck” in various fields such as generation of semiconductors, semiconductor wafer-level substrates, analog chips, optoelectronic chips, and CMOS image sensors.

Foreign investment enterprises of Hubble Technology Investment Co., Ltd. (Data source: Qichacha)

In 2021, Hubble Technology has successively invested in Feipu Electronics, which is engaged in the development of Electronic design automation (EDA) software developed by itself, and Yundao Zhizao, which is committed to the independent research and development and application of high-end simulation technology. The technology manufacturing industry provides the overall solution of the rising software, and is engaged in the production and sales of Display driver chips/circuit boards.

It is worth mentioning that on May 31, Hubble Technology underwent an industrial and commercial change, and the company’s registered capital increased from 2.7 billion yuan to 3 billion yuan, an increase of about 11.11%. In addition, according to the company’s information, Hubble Technology has currently invested in 38 foreign companies, covering analog chips, silicon carbide materials, power chips, artificial intelligence chips, in-vehicle communication chips, connectors, etc. Keyi Hongyuan will undoubtedly further complement the chip ecological industry chain invested by Hubble.

The main business of Keyi Hongyuan is the light source system, one of the three core technologies in the lithography machine. It is the first domestic and world third 193nm ArF excimer laser company. Keyi Hongyuan was established in July 2016. It was jointly invested by the Academy of Optoelectronics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the Institute of Microelectronics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Yizhuang International Investment Co., Ltd., and State-owned Assets Management Co., Ltd. of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, with a registered capital of 120 million yuan.

In 2018, the first domestic high-energy excimer laser independently designed and developed by Keyi Hongyuan was shipped, breaking the long-term monopoly of foreign manufacturers and becoming the domestic industry leader in one fell swoop. However, wearing the aura of “the first in China and the third in the world”, the name of Keyi Hongyuan is not well known to the public. A large part of the reason is that its field is too professional. In addition, if it weren’t for the serious impact of this “chip supply cutoff”, most Chinese people would probably not have known the huge gap between domestic chip manufacturing processes and foreign technologies, and naturally they knew very little about lithography machines.

Benchmark for measuring technology R&D and industrial level

Previously, Huawei founder Ren Zhengfei mentioned that the difficulty Huawei encountered was the advanced chips they designed, and the domestic basic industry could not yet produce them. As we all know, advanced technology is one of the weakest links in domestic chips. Among the hundreds of processes in chip manufacturing, lithography is one of the most important steps to directly define the size of the transistor and determine the precision of the chip, and its cost accounts for the entire chip. 30% of the manufacturing cost, and some people even call it “a benchmark for measuring technology research and development and industrial level”.

However, the fabrication of the lithography machine required for the lithography step has stepped on our sore spot. In the global lithography machine market, the monopoly of ASML is beyond doubt, and companies such as Nikon and Canon have also divided up the remaining market share. According to the latest news, the exposure system of the EXE:5000 lithography machine with an ASML aperture value of 0.55 has been designed and can be officially shipped in 2022. The EXE:5000 lithography machine can be used for mass production of 2nm process chips, or even 1nm and below.

In contrast, domestic lithography machines are in a relatively backward position. At present, Shanghai Microelectronics can only manufacture 90nm low-end lithography machines, which is far from the EUV high-end lithography machines and DUV mid-end lithography machines manufactured by ASML. Faced with the current situation of domestic lithography machines, Professor Lin Yifu of Peking University believes that if the Dutch ASML company does not sell lithography machines to domestic enterprises, my country can fully master this technology in about three years. Once domestic enterprises master this technology, then The manufacturing cost of the lithography machine will be lower than that of foreign companies, and the Netherlands ASML will have to withdraw.

Many netizens think that Professor Justin Yifu Lin is too optimistic, but the author believes that his confidence is not groundless. Although EUV lithography machine is the most advanced technology at present, DUV, which is already the “older generation”, is actually the main force of wafer manufacturing, whether it is image sensor, power IC, MEMS, analog IC, or logic IC, behind the scenes Has its figure. The biggest difference between DUV and EUV is the light source, EUV’s light source wavelength is 13.5nm, and the most advanced DUV’s light source wave is 193nm, using ArF light source.

It is worth mentioning that my country has frequently received good news in the DUV field. In the past, Keyi Hongyuan broke the foreign monopoly of 193nm ArF lasers, and later NTU made a breakthrough in 193nm photoresist technology. Nanda Optoelectronics recently announced that the ArF photoresist independently developed by its holding subsidiary Ningbo Nanda Optoelectronics has been certified on the 50nm flash memory platform of a memory chip manufacturing company in December 2020. The certification breakthrough has been made in the products of the technology node, indicating that the company’s photoresist products already meet the process requirements for the metal wiring layer in the rear section of the 55nm platform.

Photoresist is mainly used to protect the built-in lines of the chip and reduce the erosion of the exposed outside of the line. The photoresist is smeared on the surface of the silicon-based chip and forms a liquid under the projection of extreme ultraviolet light. The effective projection area and the cleaning process directly determine the yield of the final chip. The uniformity of the photoresist also directly determines the final chip. Performance, the most widely used photoresists are Krf and Arf, which are mainly used in advanced chip manufacturing process.

More importantly, the ArF photoresist market has been monopolized by the United States and Japan for many years. In May of this year, the Japanese company “Shin-Etsu Chemical” announced that it would no longer sell KrF photoresist to Chinese semiconductor companies on the grounds of insufficient production capacity. Today, when domestic EUV lithography technology is still immature, ArF is still the mainstream, so our various breakthroughs in 193nm ArF lithography technology are of great significance.

write at the end

Initially, Huawei started from HiSilicon. After nearly ten years, its mobile phone chips have gradually gained consumer recognition and reached an international leading position. Before Huawei’s 5G technology became famous, my country was also unknown in the field of global communications.

In the face of monopoly and sanctions, Huawei and the domestic semiconductor industry are not only facing challenges, but also unprecedented opportunities. Although the domestic alternatives in the semiconductor industry have been hindered and long, my country’s scientific research technology, industrial manufacturing, talent reserve and other aspects have long since changed. Technology has made great progress, I believe that self-controllability is no longer empty talk!

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Application of TI-AFE in new health testing products

Nowadays, smart wearable products have become an indispensable part of our daily life. Products such as earphones, smart watches, bracelets, and smart glasses have become a must for modern people. In September 2014, Apple launched its first smartwatch. Since then, Apple has lifted the curtain of smart wear in the market, and many companies such as Amazon, Samsung, Huawei, OPPO, vivo, etc. have all been involved in the wave caused by smart wear.

Author: Frank Cai

Nowadays, smart wearable products have become an indispensable part of our daily life. Products such as earphones, smart watches, bracelets, and smart glasses have become a must for modern people. In September 2014, Apple launched its first smartwatch. Since then, Apple has lifted the curtain of smart wear in the market, and many companies such as Amazon, Samsung, Huawei, OPPO, vivo, etc. have all been involved in the wave caused by smart wear.

From IDC’s research reports on smart wearable shipments in 2015, 2016, 2019 and 2020, it can be seen that the shipments of smart wearable devices are increasing year by year. Several major manufacturers in 2015 and 2016 include: Xiaomi (37.4% market share), Little Talent (7.4% market share), Lexin and Huawei (5.4% and 5.1%) and Apple (3.4%). In 2020, the main manufacturers of the smart wearable market have undergone a big change. From the above-mentioned manufacturers, it has become a major manufacturer of mobile phone manufacturers, such as Huawei, Xiaomi, OPPO, Apple and BBK. At the same time, in terms of share, it is no longer the dominant situation of Xiaomi. After various mobile phone manufacturers joined the smart wearable market, the situation has become a multi-polar trend. Every mobile phone manufacturer regards smart wear as an important part of the ecological environment of its own products. Take Huawei’s wearable devices as an example. In the fourth quarter of 2015, Huawei’s shipments were only 639,000 units. In the same quarter of 2019, its shipments soared to 6,182 thousand units. By 2020, shipments of wearable devices will still grow slightly, reaching 6,761,000 units. It can be seen that the smart wearable market still has great development potential, and more and more different companies have joined this market to compete for share.

The most important point in developing different new products is how to catch the eyes of customers, and the products need to be able to meet their needs. With the development of science and technology, health has always been a topic of concern to everyone. How to check their own health status in a timely manner will be a focus for customers in the future, and it is also one of the selling points that products need to have. Instead of going to the hospital for regular physical examinations, customers want to know their own situation in a simple way. Therefore, if it is a smartwatch that can integrate sleep monitoring, motion detection, and even support biosignal detection, such as electrocardiogram (ECG), photoplethysmography (PPG), bioimpedance (BIO-Z) measurement, etc. So can this product attract customers to buy it? The answer is yes. Therefore, integrating different health detection functions has gradually become the mainstream trend of smart wearable products. Because this type of smart wearable product or portable health monitor is completely unlike traditional medical equipment (especially in terms of product size and measurement accuracy). Therefore, we call it “new health monitoring products”.

The human body has many types of physiological signals, such as the PPG and ECG just mentioned, what do they represent? ECG, also known as electrocardiogram, can diagnose various heart diseases and abnormal states by measuring electrical signals in the body. In contrast, PPG uses the light transmitter of new health products to generate specific wavelengths of absorbed light that penetrates the skin and blood of the human body, and is reflected to the receiver, where the light signal is converted into an electrical signal by conversion in the product. Information about blood pressure and blood flow in the human body. Finally, customers can see relevant data through portable monitoring products such as smart watches and wristbands.

Figure 3: Simplified PPG detection process

It can be seen that in order to meet the multi-application and multi-channel requirements of new health monitoring products, AFE products need to be able to support multi-application scenarios and multi-channel requirements. In addition, since physiological signals are relatively weak in the body and are easily interfered by the outside world, AFE also needs to be able to detect weak signals, amplify signals, and have appropriate anti-interference capabilities. Taking ECG measurement as an example, people use the differential voltage between two electrodes connected to the human body, or the differential voltage between multiple electrodes (for different lead requirements), and take the average value to reflect the state of the heart. Because electrical signals in the human body are very weak and difficult to detect, high-precision amplifiers are essential to measure these electrical signals. TI can address these applications by using different AFE products and setting up total system solutions. In the detection of ECG, we can use the ADS129x series (here, the ADS1292R is used as an example).

The ADS1292R fully integrates ECG detection and respiratory impedance measurement (RESP) for portable, low-power physiological signal measurement products. There are two low-noise PGAs and two high-resolution ADCs inside the device, which are used for the detection, measurement and amplification of weak electrical signals. At the same time, the gain of the PGA is optional, which can meet different application scenarios. The ADS1292R is very competitive in the AFE market due to its high level of device integration, which integrates functions such as the right leg drive circuit (RLD) and lead-off detection. For customer-specific applications, such as using multiple channels for both ECG and RESP detection and measurement, this can be easily implemented by paralleling two ADS1292Rs. More detailed parameters and usage methods can be found in the data sheet of ADS1292R.

TI provides AFEs with various channels and functional options for different customers, which can meet the application scenarios of different needs, and provide flexible solutions to achieve corresponding functions. In addition to diversified functions and channels, TI’s AFE also has certain advantages in terms of power consumption, noise performance, package size, etc. These characteristics need to be fully considered in the customer’s design. TI’s products can make the design more flexible and convenient, and can help Customers simplify PCB layout and reduce costs.

In addition to the ADS129x series, TI has many highly integrated products that can support various application scenarios. For example, the product AFE4500 can support the above functions as well as bioimpedance analysis and optical biosensing. By measuring bioimpedance, through algorithm calculation and derivation, the composition and physiological data of different substances in the human body can be obtained, such as body fat, moisture, etc. Some terminal products on the market have also realized how to quickly and conveniently obtain the physiological data of the human body. In addition, due to the integration of ECG, PPG and other functions, the use of AFE4500 in portable or smart wearable devices can simultaneously obtain different physiological data. The design not only simplifies the mutual interference of complex circuits and separation schemes, but also brings customers Highlights of the product. For consumers, an end product that can integrate multiple functional measurements must be a differentiated product. There are a wide variety of TI-based AFE products, and the following is a simplified selection table that can be used as a reference for your selection. For more AFE devices, you can check the reference link to learn more about TI’s AFE products.

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Composition and principle analysis of DC motor of automobile starter

The DC motor of the car starter is the power output part of the starter. Its structure is mainly composed of armature rotor, magnetic pole stator, commutator, brush and other components.

1. The armature rotor, the armature rotor is the rotating part of the DC motor. It is an iron core formed by superimposing round silicon steel sheets with grooves. The grooves are wound with winding wires. Due to the large starting torque of the engine, the current is very large. 200 to 600 amps, the wire diameter is thicker.

2. The magnetic pole stator is composed of an iron core fixed on the casing and a magnetic pole winding, generally composed of two pairs of magnetic poles, and the casing together forms a magnetic circuit.

3. Commutator. The function of the commutator is to introduce current into the rotating stator. It is composed of many dovetail copper sheets sandwiched with mica sheets. The armature winding is welded at the dovetail.

4. The brush and the brush holder, the positive brush holder is insulated and connected to the end cover, the negative brush holder and the end cover are directly grounded, the brush is pressed with copper powder and carbon powder, and transmits electric energy to the commutator .

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The infighting of the founders of Bitmain ended: Wu Jihan left, the company was split, and the valuation plummeted

Bitmain’s “infighting” drama that has lasted for more than a year has finally come to an end.

On January 26, 2021, Jihan Wu, the co-founder of Bitmain, announced his official resignation as CEO and chairman of Bitmain through an encrypted letter. Jihan Wu said:

As the co-founder of Bitmain, I have enjoyed the 2815 day journey and received selfless help and support from many clients, colleagues, friends and investors.


Wu Jihan also said that he would send his most sincere wishes to Ketuan Zhan and Bitmain led by him.

The gentleness of the wording and blessings in the letter is in sharp contrast with the infighting between Wu Jihan and Ketuan Zhan in the past infighting, which is shocking.


The “Power Seizing” Battle Between Wu Jihan and Zhan Ketuan

Ketuan Zhan never imagined that, as the major shareholder and chairman of Bitmain, Wu Jihan, the co-founder of Bitmain, would suddenly seize power.

October 27, 2019, was the day before the Shenzhen Security Expo was officially held. On this day, Bitmain held a conference of the third-generation smart server SA5 in Shenzhen. At that time, Ketuan Zhan appeared at the conference as the chairman of Bitmain.

On October 28, business information showed that Ketuan Zhan, chairman of Bitmain, stepped down as the legal representative of Bitmain, and was replaced by Wu Jihan, co-founder of Bitmain, and Ketuan Zhan no longer served as executive director. Ketuan Zhan was completely unaware of the major personnel changes registered in the industrial and commercial sector.

On October 29, Wu Jihan suddenly attacked.

On the same day, Wu Jihan, as the founder of Bitmain, chairman of the board of directors of Bitmain, legal representative & executive director of Beijing Bitmain Co., Ltd., issued an internal notice, announcing that Ketuan Zhan was relieved of all positions in Bitmain, effective immediately; The notice also requires Bitmain employees to no longer execute Ketuan Zhan’s orders and not participate in meetings convened by Ketuan Zhan.

A rift between the control of the two founders of Bitmain was made public.

You know, Jihan Wu and Ketuan Zhan are both key figures in Bitmain, and they are both founders of Bitmain. In terms of equity, Bitmain adopts an AB share structure. Each A-share common share has one vote, and each B-share common share has ten votes—except for the two co-founders of the company, Ketuan Zhan and Jihan Wu. Except for B shares, all company management and investors hold A shares.

According to the prospectus previously published by Bitmain, Ketuan Zhan and Jihan Wu hold about 3.989 billion B shares and 2.243 billion B shares respectively, and their shareholding accounts for 56.25% of the issued share capital before listing. Regardless of their shareholding ratio or voting rights, Zhan and Wu’s absolute control over Bitmain is unshakable.

But between Wu Jihan and Ketuan Zhan, Ketuan Zhan has a greater equity advantage and is the largest shareholder of Bitmain.

On November 7, 2019, after being “expelled” by Wu Jihan, Ketuan Zhan posted a long response on Weibo, saying:

It is embarrassing. As the founder and largest shareholder of Bitmain, I never knew that the legal representative registered with the government department would be suddenly changed without my knowledge. When the big change came, I realized that there have been countless scenes in film and television dramas, and the scenes of being stabbed in the back by my once most trusted partner and the “brother” who fought together will really happen.

Ketuan Zhan also said that all attempts to harm and take advantage of Bitmain will fail.


From being “expelled” to being deprived of a business license

After being “expelled”, Ketuan Zhan has never stopped paying attention to this company even though he is outside Bitmain.

At the end of 2019, Bitmain launched a personnel optimization plan; it is reported that the AI ​​business led by Ketuan Zhan has become the focus of optimization due to insufficient profitability; on January 4, 2020, Bitmain announced in an internal letter that the appointment of AI computing Wang Jun, the new CEO of the Feng business line.

In response, Ketuan Zhan issued an open letter on January 6 expressing his opposition to layoffs and calling for suicide.

Of course, at this time, if Ketuan Zhan only appealed on Weibo, he would not actually be able to control Bitmain’s operations – but he never gave up the fight for control of Bitmain.

In fact, after being “expelled”, Ketuan Zhan filed an administrative lawsuit with the Haidian Court because he was dissatisfied with the industrial and commercial registration change decision made by the Haidian District Market Supervision Administration, and then withdrew the lawsuit and changed it to administrative reconsideration – January 31, 2020, Haidian District, Beijing made an administrative reconsideration decision to revoke the registration of changing the legal person to Wu Jihan on October 28, 2019.

However, on January 2, 2020, Bitmain’s legal representative changed again, from Jihan Wu to General Manager Liu Luyao – Liu Luyao is Wu Jihan’s high school and undergraduate classmate.

Therefore, Ketuan Zhan once again filed an administrative reconsideration with the Haidian District Judicial Bureau on February 12, 2020, applying to revoke the change of legal representative and restore himself as the legal representative; on April 28, 2020, Beijing Haidian District again issued a reconsideration decision book, and revoke Liu Luyao’s legal representative status.

That is to say, in three or four months, the legal representative of Bitmain has changed twice: from Ketuan Zhan to Wu Jihan, and from Jihan Wu to Liu Luyao – but under the obstruction of Ketuan Zhan, this was changed. Both changes have been revoked by the administrative department.

It seems that Zhan Ketuan is the winner.

However, on May 8, 2020, at around 11:00 a.m., at the window 52 on the second floor of the Government Affairs Service Center in Haidian District, Beijing, the business license of Beijing Bitmain Technology Co., Ltd. was snatched from the hands of industrial and commercial administrative staff by a group of unidentified men. Let’s go, the legal person of this business license is Ketuan Zhan.

It is understood that there are more than 60 unidentified big men in the group, and Liu Luyao is the on-site commander.

At three o’clock in the afternoon, Bitmain issued another statement:

The public registration of the market supervision department shows that Ketuan Zhan is the legal representative of our country, which is a registration error, and seriously violates the provisions of the “Company Law”… Ketuan Zhan pretends to be the legal representative of “Beijing Bit”. …


Two founders reconcile, Bitmain is seeking IPO

The incident of “grabbing a business license” at the Haidian District Government Service Center in Beijing forced Wu Jihan’s party to face accountability from the public security department and the procuratorate. :

The police detained some of the leaders. Liu Luyao “cooperated with the investigation” and was released a few days later. Someone was detained for 37 days on suspicion of “picking quarrels and provoking trouble.”

But for Ketuan Zhan, the recapture of the company has to go on.

It is understood that in June 2020, Ketuan Zhan obtained the business license and returned to the company by picking the lock from the back door, but was still obstructed by Wu Jihan in the internal operation.

On July 17, 2020, Wu Jihan released the “Book to All Colleagues”, saying that the reason why Ketuan Zhan was relieved was that Ketuan Zhan had swelled after his success and could not listen to his opinions – he also said that the original intention of the company to change the management was only In order to survive the crisis, survive and develop, without any intention of revenge.

However, by the end of July 2020, according to the “Latepost” report, Ketuan Zhan and Jihan Wu were already negotiating; specifically, Ketuan Zhan tried to acquire the options in the hands of shareholders and employees at a valuation of US$4 billion.

In September 2020, Beijing Bitmain continued to undergo industrial and commercial changes. Its legal representative was changed from Ketuan Zhan to Jihan Wu. Wu Jihan was the executive director, Ketuan Zhan was the manager, and Yuesheng Ge was the supervisor. There was another industrial and commercial change in the mainland. Ketuan Zhan resigned from the manager position and added Wu Jihan as the general manager.

In December 2020, some media reported that Ketuan Zhan and Jihan Wu formally reached an agreement. As a result of the agreement, Ketuan Zhan pledged shares for the time being and lent $600 million from Bitmain to acquire Jihan Wu’s shares; rumors said that the coordinator was Shen Nanpeng of Sequoia Capital.

But now, along with this letter from Wu Jihan, the infighting among the founders of Bitmain has finally subsided.

Judging from the content of the letter, Ketuan Zhan did acquire some of Wu Jihan’s shares at a price of US$600 million. Part of the US$600 million came from Bitmain’s loan and partly from financing-accompanying this acquisition, Wu Jihan from Bitmain stepped down, but at the same time he also got some assets from Bitmain and merged it into BitDeer, and served as the chairman of BitDeer.

From the point of view of personnel appointments, from now until the listing of Bitmain, the board of directors of Bitmain will be composed of 5 people, Ketuan Zhan has the right to appoint 3 of them, and Jihan Wu has the right to appoint the other 2 – it can be seen that Wu Jihan takes Money is gone, but not completely out.

Of course, judging from the letter, Bitmain’s IPO plan is also in the process of being realized.



If there is no more chaos, the infighting between the two founders of Bitmain will come to an end.

However, since Wu Jihan attacked Ketuan Zhan at the end of October 2019, and now the two sides have reconciled, the development of Bitmain as a company has suffered serious internal friction, and its valuation has also suffered a serious decline in the process—— In August 2020, according to the latest data released by the Hurun Research Institute, Bitmain’s valuation dropped by 50 billion yuan to 30 billion.

Today, the valuation of Bitmain has stayed at the level of 30 billion.

With Wu Jihan’s letter of reconciliation, Bitmain in the past was essentially divided into two parts, Bitmain and Bit Deer, which belonged to the two founders of Bitmain.

In this way, Ketuan Zhan and Jihan Wu, who used to work together to start a business together, are now moving towards a break that is closer to the essence in some form of reconciliation.

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Research on 5G Network Interconnection Scheme and Regulatory Issues

Abstract: With the in-depth development of 5G network construction in my country, 5G inter-network interconnection has become the focus of attention of operators and telecom authorities. 5G inter-network services include voice/video, rich media messages, inter-network roaming, etc. Both the program and the regulation put forward new requirements. This paper introduces the inter-network interconnection scheme of 5G services, and analyzes the issues that need to be paid attention to in interconnection supervision.

Key words: 5G; interconnection; IMS; RCS; inter-network roaming

1 Introduction

As a new type of infrastructure, 5G can provide key support for the digital, networked and intelligent transformation of society, and has become an important link in the strategic layout of my country’s information modernization construction. Currently in the critical period of centralized construction of 5G network, it is necessary to coordinate the layout, increase policy support and implementation, and further give full play to the role of telecom operators as the main body of construction and operation. Entering 2020, the 5G construction process has accelerated significantly. As an important part of network construction, inter-network interconnection has received attention from all parties. On the one hand, 5G service interconnection puts forward new requirements for the network construction of telecommunications companies; on the other hand, the service quality, settlement plan, and security guarantee of 5G service interconnection have also become important issues that telecommunications authorities pay attention to.

2 5G voice/video interworking

At present, the voice network of each operator is gradually evolving to the full IMS target network. VoLTE has been activated on 4G networks. Each operator is deploying the core network of 5G independent networking architecture, and will provide VoNR voice and video services in the future. At this stage, the calls between users within each operator’s network can use the high-definition voice/video and various audio and video CRBT services provided by the IMS, but the inter-network calls still use the circuit domain gateway office to communicate. When calls between users of different operators pass through the gateway office in the inter-network circuit domain, the signaling is converted into ISUP, and the media encoding is converted into PCM, so the inter-network calls cannot provide high-definition voice and video services.

In order to meet the needs of 4G/5G business development, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology organized China Telecom, China Mobile and China Unicom to carry out IMS network interconnection pilot projects in Hunan and Sichuan provinces in 2019, and verified IMS services on 4G networks. Interoperability between networks. With the deployment of 5G independent networking architecture and the implementation of VoNR, 5G network audio and video services will also be interconnected through IP interworking gateway offices, providing high-definition voice/video, video color ringtones and other services between networks.

2.1 IMS Inter-Network Interworking Scheme

2.1.1 IMS Inter-Network Interworking Architecture

The interworking architecture of IMS networks is shown in Figure 1, following YD/T 3369-2018 “Technical Requirements for Interworking Between IMS Networks of Different Operators”[1]The IP bearer network is used for interconnection between the networks, and the intercommunication is carried out through the IBCF/TrGW. The Ici interface between the IBCFs is responsible for the forwarding of SIP signaling between the networks, and the TrGW completes the media channel establishment, media streaming, and media encoding and decoding under the control of the IBCF. Conversion, etc., the Izi interface between TrGWs is responsible for media forwarding between networks.

Figure 1 Interworking architecture between IMS networks of different operators

2.1.2 IMS Inter-Network Interworking Point Settings

Interconnection points between IMS networks are constructed on a provincial basis. IBCF is deployed in provincial capital cities, and TrGW is deployed in provincial capital cities or sinks to various cities according to the volume of interworking media traffic.

2.1.3 IMS inter-network routing

When a user dials the user number of another network, if the calling user and the called user belong to the same province, they will communicate within the province. .

2.2 Analysis of IMS Interworking Supervision Issues

Compared with the traditional circuit domain interconnection, the interconnection between IMS networks has changed in terms of interconnection protocols, interconnection point settings, service types, and billing and settlement. Corresponding adjustments need to be made in interconnection and interconnection supervision strategies.

2.2.1 Quality of Service

The monitoring of the quality of service of inter-network calls is the key content of interconnection supervision. As early as 2003, the telecommunications authority built an inter-network settlement and interconnection order monitoring system based on No.7 signaling. With the migration of the inter-network gateway office from the circuit domain to the IP network, the technical means of interconnection supervision have also changed accordingly. First, the collected signaling becomes IP data, and the monitoring points are changed from scattered collection in various cities to centralized collection at a single point in the province. Secondly, since the inter-network communication command is changed from ISUP to SIP, the signaling monitoring system needs to be transformed accordingly to realize the functions of SIP protocol analysis and analysis and processing. In addition, due to the best-effort feature of the IP network, attention should also be paid to the operation quality of the IP bearer network, such as packet loss, delay, and jitter.

2.2.2 Inter-network settlement

The original circuit domain gateway offices are deployed in various cities, and the inter-network call settlement distinguishes between local calls and long-distance calls, among which long-distance calls are further divided into inter-provincial long-distance and intra-provincial long-distance. IMS intercommunication gateways are deployed in provincial capital cities, and single-point intercommunication is adopted within the province, so the concept of intra-provincial long-distance disappears. In order to adapt to the changes in the IMS network interoperability architecture, the inter-network settlement rules can be simplified, and a unified settlement rate is set within the province, and no distinction is made between local calls within the province and long-distance calls within the province.

2.2.3 Management of fraudulent calls and harassing calls

In recent years, the governance of fraudulent calls and harassing calls has been deepened, and bad information on the Internet has also become one of the contents of the governance work. Each operator shall transmit calling numbers between networks in accordance with industry standards and relevant management regulations, and manage and control illegal calls initiated within the network. In terms of identifying and intercepting fraudulent calls and harassing calls on the Internet, operators should unify rules to avoid arbitrarily intercepting calls from the Internet.

3 5G message exchange

On April 8, 2020, China Telecom, China Mobile, and China Unicom jointly released the “5G Message White Paper”[2], the white paper proposes the concept of 5G messaging, and introduces the requirements of 5G messaging in terms of services, terminals, and networks. The 5G message service not only supports multimedia message interaction between individual users, but also enables industry customers to provide their users with new digital interactive services based on rich media. In terms of standardization, 5G messages are based on the Rich Communication Suite (RCS) mature standard (GSMA Universal Profile 2.4). After more than ten years of development, there has been extensive standard accumulation and practice accumulation, and it has a good technical foundation. my country’s 5G message standardization work is in progress, and the formulation of communication industry standards such as the overall technical requirements for 5G messages and terminal technical requirements has been basically completed.

Similar to short messages, each operator builds a 5G message center to provide services for users of its own network, and users of different operators need to use the inter-network interworking function to realize the interaction of 5G messages.

3.1 5G message network interworking solution

The industry standard for 5G message interworking is in the process of being formulated, which mainly stipulates the network architecture, routing organization, interworking function, interworking protocol, security and inter-network settlement requirements for 5G message interworking between users of different operators. The operator sets up a 5G message interworking gateway, which is responsible for the interworking of the 5G message signaling plane and media plane. The gateways are connected by dedicated lines or VPNs (see Figure 2).


Figure 2 Interoperability architecture between different operators’ 5G message networks

The following differences exist between 5G message interworking and short message interworking.

(1) Multimedia message transmission: Traditional short message gateways carry text information through signaling. 5G message interworking requires signaling and media layers to complete the transmission of multimedia messages. The protocols used include SIP, MSRP, and HTTP. Therefore, it is necessary to define the interworking interface to achieve message interaction.

(2) The focus of group chat messages is shifted: Different from traditional short messages, 5G messages provide group chat functions. When establishing a group, the 5G message center of one operator needs to establish a group focus, which is responsible for maintaining the user list and historical message content in the group. Users who create a group can transfer the group focus to other operators’ 5G messages Center, which involves the process of inter-network interaction.

3.2 Analysis of 5G Message Interworking Regulatory Issues

5G messaging is a new type of messaging service. Due to the introduction of rich media functions, it faces new challenges in terms of message transmission service quality and content security.

3.2.1 Quality of Service

5G messages are mainly multimedia data, including voice, image, video and other formats. The Internet transmission of various data should meet specific performance indicators. The competent telecommunications department can establish a monitoring system to monitor the transmission delay, delivery rate and other indicators of inter-network messages to ensure that the business meets the corresponding service quality requirements.

3.2.2 Inter-network settlement

Traditional short messages are billed and settled by piece. 5G messages introduce multimedia content. When interconnecting, they should have the ability to bill messages between networks based on traffic, number of pieces, and duration. The 5G message charging field should include charging type, calling and called party identification, media type, message content length, etc. The specific settlement rules and rates can be determined by the operator through negotiation.

3.2.3 Spam governance

The 5G message format has been upgraded from text to multimedia, posing new challenges to the governance of spam messages such as harassment and marketing. While carrying out 5G messaging services, operators will also provide technical means to prevent spam messages. Internet messages may become a blind spot for spam management, and telecommunications authorities need to coordinate the deployment of operators in advance to prevent the spread of spam and purify the cyberspace.

4 5G core network inter-network roaming

my country’s 5G networks are mostly constructed in high frequency bands, the network sites are dense, and the construction investment is huge; 5G network bandwidth is large, maintaining the same power spectrum density, 5G base stations need higher transmit power, resulting in increased base station power consumption; 5G active antenna units and The 2G/3G/4G passive antennas on the existing network need to be deployed independently of each other, which increases the rent of base stations and puts pressure on operating costs.To this end, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology released the 5G development strategy[3]guide basic telecommunications companies to strengthen coordination and cooperation, give full play to market mechanisms, integrate advantageous resources, carry out 5G network sharing and inter-network roaming, accelerate the formation of a network pattern with multiple networks coexisting in hotspot areas and one network in remote areas, and create resource-intensive and operational Efficient 5G network.

4.1 5G Core Network Inter-Network Roaming Solution

5G core network inter-network roaming refers to the construction of a complete 5G network by an operator, and users of other operators access the network through roaming and use mobile communication services. In remote areas where the economy is underdeveloped, the number of users is small, and the demand for services is small, building a 5G underpinning network, and users of other operators can access the 5G network through core network roaming, which can greatly save construction investment and improve network efficiency. The specific technical requirements for inter-network roaming in the 5G core network are as follows.

(1) Technical system: Priority is given to realizing 5G inter-network roaming under the independent networking architecture, and it can also provide inter-network roaming with non-independent networking architecture.

(2) Equipment capabilities: network equipment and terminals should support 5G inter-network roaming with independent networking architecture, terminals should support automatic network selection mode, support 5G network priority network selection strategy, and support the simultaneous Display of two operator logos.

(3) Operator identification: In the roaming state, the terminal simultaneously displays the identification of the home network and the visited network to remind the user that the user is in a roaming state of different networks.

(4) Service realization: The voice, data and short message services provided by the operator to the users of this network and roaming users shall ensure the same communication quality. With VoNR as the 5G voice target solution, you can fall back/switch to the 4G network for calls if necessary.

(5) Routing mode: The home routing mode is preferred, that is, the roaming data is sent to the home network, and the user service is handled by the home network; the local routing mode can also be selected, that is, the user service is handled by the visited network.

4.2 Analysis of 5G Core Network Inter-Network Roaming Supervision Issues

Inter-network roaming in the 5G core network involves coordination between different operators at the technical and management levels. The business process is complex, and there are many issues to be paid attention to in terms of supervision.

4.2.1 Quality of Service

Operators providing roaming services should ensure that roaming users have the same quality of service as users on their own networks, so that roaming users can have a good 5G service experience. The competent telecommunication department may establish a monitoring system to monitor the service quality of inter-network roaming.

4.2.2 Inter-network settlement

Both parties opening roaming services should sign a settlement agreement, and the settlement rate should adhere to the principle of market dominance, and should be negotiated by each operator; if an agreement cannot be reached through negotiation, the telecommunications authority should intervene in coordination, refer to the comprehensive tariff level of roaming operators, and put forward coordination opinions or make an administrative decision. According to the market development, the competent telecommunications department shall regularly evaluate and adjust the settlement policies and settlement standards for different network roaming in a timely manner.

4.2.3 Network Security

Core network inter-network roaming needs to be connected to core networks of different operators, and there is a lot of data exchanged between the two parties, including user authentication information and service data. When establishing a roaming interworking link, the interface for the division of network security responsibilities should be clarified, a network security assurance plan should be proposed simultaneously, and a technical plan for preventing fraudulent calls and harassing calls should be made on the Internet.

5 Conclusion

my country has carried out 5G network construction in an all-round way. In order to cope with the new situation of 5G service development and enable users to obtain better service experience, operators have begun to deploy 5G service-oriented inter-network interconnection infrastructure. The competent telecommunications department needs to strengthen the supervision and coordination of interconnection between networks, and formulate interconnection policies that conform to the current situation of my country’s network, so as to effectively promote the construction of 5G networks and industrial development.

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Teledyne e2v will continue to develop and manufacture high specification CCD imaging sensors

Teledyne e2v, part of the Teledyne Imaging Group, said today that it will continue as a long-term partner to develop, manufacture and supply CCD detectors for the high-end scientific market for ground science work in space exploration, Earth observation and microscopy, spectroscopy and astronomy .

The CCD wafers are fed into a furnace at the Teledyne e2v facility in the UK. CCD wafers are part of a specialized CCD wafer fabrication process.

e2v is a long-term supplier to the European Space Agency (ESA), NASA, the European Southern Observatory (ESO) and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), in order to ensure that the detectors and systems must function properly To deliver scientific-grade visible light detection in an environment that requires a great deal of effort.

Miles Adcock, president of E2v’s Space and Quantum division, commented: “The invention of the CCD more than 50 years ago not only brought about a multi-billion dollar annual imaging industry, it also enabled the exploration of distant worlds and a better understanding of what we have today. Scientific achievement, it’s unbelievable.”

While other technology companies are turning to CMOS technology due to the continuous development of CCD technology, Teledyne Imaging, through its European subsidiary Teledyne e2v and Teledyne DALSA Foundry in Bromont, Canada, continues to provide mission-critical, high-quality CCD detectors that enable The most demanding imaging applications. In addition, the group will continue to invest in complementary technologies such as CMOS, x-ray, spectroscopy and infrared, offering a well-balanced set of business lines to meet a growing customer base in existing and emerging markets.

The Links:   LTM170E4-L01 EP3C16F256C8N

SaaS company UMU announced the completion of hundreds of millions of C3 rounds of financing, led by Huaxing

On November 1, UMU, an educational SaaS company, announced the completion of its C3 round of financing of hundreds of millions of yuan. This round of financing was led by Huaxing New Economy Fund, followed by Wuyuan Capital. Huaxing Capital served as the exclusive financial advisor for this financing.

Prior to this, UMU has completed 6 rounds of financing, including Gaocheng Capital, Hillhouse Ventures, Wuyuan Capital, Huaxing New Economy Fund, etc.

This round of financing will be used for learning science and AI technology, as well as for talent development, business development, and organizational development of enterprises, so that enterprise learning can truly bring about changes in behavior and performance, and enhance the core competitiveness of enterprises.

Regarding this round of financing, Bao Fan, chairman of China Renaissance, founding partner of the fund, and chief investment officer, said that a large number of contemporary enterprises have transformed from human-driven to knowledge-driven, and how to manage knowledge, build a knowledge system, and realize human capital appreciation , has become one of the most important issues for enterprises. In this area, we are delighted to see that UMU has made corporate training offerings for the global digital native generation.

According to Qichacha, the UMU interactive learning platform was established in 2014. It is an online interactive education and training platform. In November 2019, it received investment from angel investor Wang Gang. The investment amount has not been announced.

The Links:   LM170E03-TLG3 G104STN010

After being blocked by the United States, why does SMIC still make more money?

At the end of December 2020, SMIC, the Chinese chip foundry giant and the hope of the whole village in China’s chip industry, was hit hard by the United States and was added to Huawei’s “same model” entity list.

Since the high-end chip manufacturing equipment used by SMIC is provided by Western companies such as Europe, America and Japan, the blacklisting this time has a profound impact on SMIC. Generally speaking, the companies on the list are not completely cut off from supply, but confirm which technologies and items can be imported and which cannot be imported under the review of the US side. But for SMIC, when it was added to the list this time, the United States directly added a clause: For chip manufacturing equipment with the most advanced technology below 10nm, the United States directly refused to approve it and did not allow it to be imported.

And we must know that the current 1,2,000 mobile phones have also begun to use 7nm process chips. Therefore, this blackout basically makes SMIC blocked the possibility of further expanding its business in the field of high-end chip manufacturing in the future.

In this context, last week, SMIC released its first quarterly financial report after being blocked. Although SMIC’s stock price has come out of an avalanche of decline since it was added to the list, as if it will go bankrupt tomorrow, in fact, judging from the financial report, people are actually doing well.

In the first quarter, SMIC’s revenue was 7.29 billion yuan, a year-on-year increase of 13.9%; net profit was 1.032 billion yuan, a year-on-year increase of 136.4%; gross profit margin was 26.97%, compared with 21.46% in the previous quarter. It increased by 5 points in a single quarter.

To sum up, it means that SMIC’s revenue has increased slightly, its profits have soared, and its earning ability has been greatly improved.

However, from the perspective of revenue sources, on the one hand, in the context of global mobile phone shipments hitting a new high since 2015 (global smartphone shipments reached 340 million units in the quarter, an increase of 24% year-on-year), SMIC is a smartphone chip maker. The proportion of revenue brought by foundry has dropped significantly. On the other hand, SMIC’s highest-end process chips only stop at 14nm, and the proportion of revenue brought by 14nm process chips has also shown a downward trend.

Compared with TSMC, the global chip foundry leader, its latest financial report shows that the company’s revenue from 5nm process chip manufacturing has exceeded 20% in the two quarters, and half of its revenue is brought by 5nm and 7nm process chips.

In addition, more than half of TSMC’s revenue is from the mobile phone chip business, and more than 30% is brought by the manufacture of computer and server chips for world-renowned CPU or GPU giants such as AMD and Nvidia.

Therefore, TSMC’s business is getting more and more high-end, and it can even be said that large companies that do high-end chips will find TSMC. For example, major mobile phone chip manufacturers such as Apple, Qualcomm, and MediaTek all manufacture 5G chips by TSMC. Before Huawei was cut off from supply, all HiSilicon high-end chips could only be manufactured by TSMC.

Therefore, there is a technical gap between SMIC and TSMC, which is widening under the shadow of supply interruption.

So why is SMIC still making money?

This is because, from 2020 to the present, the global chip has been lacking crazy (why can read the chip lack such a ghost). Simply put, the demand for chips in all walks of life has exploded. Today, when the chip industry is highly divided, except for a few major chip manufacturers with their own chip manufacturing lines, such as Intel and Samsung, neither Apple, Qualcomm nor Nvidia have any chip manufacturing capabilities. The chip company is only doing the design of the chip, and finally the chip must be manufactured by a few chip foundries in the world.

Even masks, protective gloves and other anti-epidemic supplies suffered from severe shortage of production capacity during the epidemic, not to mention the high-end “jewel in the crown” level of high-end chips with complex production processes, highly specialized production processes, limited global supply of production equipment, and scarce engineers. In the manufacturing industry, when the demand increases, the production line expands slowly and cannot increase production in the short term.

For the majority of small and medium chip companies, it is even more impossible to build their own chip production lines. Therefore, no matter what process or level of chip orders, they must snatch the limited chip manufacturing capacity.

Demand exceeds supply, which naturally leads to price increases.

More importantly, although there is no advanced process (5nm, 7nm, 10nm such high-end chip process) revenue in SMIC’s business composition, in fact, the mature process of more than tens of nanometers in the global chip market share still accounts for the vast majority. most.

Then some students may have to ask. Now, when I look at the news about chips, they are all commercial 5nm, impacting 3nm, even IBM has come up with 2nm, TSMC has started to develop 1nm, why are dozens of nm antiques from several generations ago Is there such a big market for chips?

This is because, except for a very small number of chips used in mobile phones, computers, and servers, which require high-end manufacturing processes, the chips required for almost all Electronic components at present do not have such high process requirements.

For example, the most in short supply of automotive-grade chips used in automobiles, mainstream products of 28nm are considered high-end, while RF chips, memory chips, IoT chips and other seemingly high-end components actually do not have such high process requirements.

Therefore, when the big mobile phone chip manufacturers and computer chip manufacturers are fighting the bayonet in the “high-end player zone” of the chip manufacturing process, the vast majority of technology companies are still quietly using tens of nanometers or even microns. chip. This is the real broad market for the chip industry.

Although SMIC has no ability to sit on the table of the masters, it occupies a place in the public mahjong room.

In other words, SMIC’s production line can produce almost all chip products except for a few high-end chip products. At present, the most short-circuit chip companies are not the advanced process chip companies with deep pockets and the ability to seize TSMC’s production capacity, but the mature process chip companies that have to queue up a little later. Therefore, in the eyes of the Chinese people, SMIC, which is “incompetent in technology”, is actually a genuine sweet pastry in the chip industry. On the one hand, the production line is running at full capacity, and on the other hand, the OEM price is rising, which makes SMIC. International made a lot of money.

Even companies at the level of Qualcomm and Broadcom have many types of chips handed over to SMIC for foundry. Even in 2020, when they are blocked, their US customer revenue will account for a quarter.

Zhao Haijun, CEO of SMIC, even released the following words: “The company’s production capacity allocation principle is to give priority to satisfying customers who have long-term cooperation and common development with SMIC, and secondly to consider high-margin products, while maintaining close relationships with other customers. Communicate and negotiate to ensure the most important needs.” You can say whether you are crazy or not.

However, compared with other chip foundries, still being listed on the entity list is the biggest hidden danger of SMIC. When TSMC and UMC began to put aside their sleeves to introduce equipment and build production lines to expand production capacity, although SMIC had money, it really had nowhere to spend. If they wanted to expand production capacity, almost all the equipment and technologies they wanted to buy had to be approved by Americans. agree.

Gao Yonggang, Chief Financial Officer of SMIC, commented: “The entire market is developing positively this year. Under normal circumstances, the company should have continued its rapid growth last year. However, the company has been included in the entity list by the US government and is purchasing US-related products and technologies. The company is still facing uncertain risks in the second half of this year.”

Therefore, in the face of the golden age of explosive chip demand and making money, although SMIC, which is “surviving in the cracks”, can still continue to make money, the money is indeed not solid and unpleasant.

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Coexistence, Competition or Convergence: How Do 5G and Wi-Fi 6 Get Along?

【Introduction】Wi-Fi is a wireless local area network (LAN) technology that is mainly used indoors, such as at home or in the workplace. The cellular network used by operators is a wide area network (WAN) that can be used both indoors and outdoors. In the industry, the debate around the convergence of Wi-Fi and cellular networks has always been there. With the introduction of a new generation of wireless technologies, Wi-Fi 6 and 5G, a new round of debate has reignited – are the two converging, coexisting or competing?

The two different types of wireless technologies, Wi-Fi 6 and 5G, have coexisted for years, with Wi-Fi and cellular standards increasingly intertwined. Industry bodies including the Wi-Fi Alliance, IEEE, Wireless Broadband Alliance (WBA), Next Generation Mobile Networks Alliance (NGMN), and 3GPP are also joining the discussion, from standards development to potential applications, to enable 5G and Wi-Fi -The interaction and integration between Fi is the main attack direction.

Wi-Fi 6 and 5G

Two wireless technologies go hand in hand

The network standard of Wi-Fi is a variant of IEEE 802.11, and there are different versions such as IEEE 802.11a, 802.11b, and 801.11g. The working frequency band is 2.4 GHz or 5 GHz, of which the 2.4 GHz frequency band supports the IEEE 802.11b/g/n/ax standard, and the 5 GHz frequency band supports the IEEE 802.11a/n/ac/ax standard. Wi-Fi 6 is the Wi-Fi Alliance’s industry name for the IEEE 802.11ax standard in the IEEE 802.11 family of local area network equipment and Internet access standards. Limited security, scalability, and efficiency have always been challenges faced by traditional Wi-Fi technologies. Wi-Fi 6 based on the IEEE 802.11ax standard has significantly enhanced efficiency and performance, it can provide 4 times higher capacity and 75% lower latency, and the speed is almost 3 times that of the previous generation Wi-Fi 5.2.

As the number of Internet users continues to increase, Wi-Fi 6 is gaining enough market traction. According to the latest research report “Wi-Fi 6 Market Global Forecast to 2027” released by Markets and Markets, the global Wi-Fi 6 market size is expected to grow from USD 11.5 billion in 2022 to USD 26.2 billion in 2027, with a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) reached 17.9%, of which ease of deployment is one of the important reasons for Wi-Fi 6 to lead. If the enterprise just upgrades the existing Wi-Fi network to Wi-Fi 6, there will be no significant increase in cost, because Wi-Fi 6 is fully backward compatible, and the original previous generation Wi-Fi equipment It doesn’t have to be eliminated, it can still be used.

5G is the fifth-generation technology standard for cellular networks. Launched by 3GPP Release 15 in 2018 and commercialized by mobile network operators in 2019, 5G is considered a major upgrade to 4G and LTE. 5G networks offer 50 times the speed, 10 times the latency and 1,000 times the capacity of 4G/LTE. Its improved performance, such as increased speed, coverage, reliability and security, is expected to enable a host of new applications across a wide range of industries. Compared with Wi-Fi 6, the advantages of 5G are mainly reflected in service delay, mobile roaming and outdoor coverage. The disadvantage is that the cost of deploying 5G networks indoors is high, and there is a problem of poor terminal compatibility.

Wi-Fi 6 and 5G represent the latest emerging wireless standards in unlicensed and licensed spectrum, respectively, and both Wi-Fi and cellular technologies have come a long way over the years and have remained largely parallel. Neither technology alone can serve the full range of enterprise services and applications. It can also be said that cellular and Wi-Fi indirectly promote each other’s development. As users increasingly rely on high-speed Wi-Fi connections at home or in the office, this drives the need for the same connection quality over cellular networks. Likewise, the ubiquitous nature of cellular connectivity has sparked similar expectations for Wi-Fi, leading to increased emphasis on the development of features such as open roaming.

Figure 1: Over 20 years in technology, Wi-Fi and cellular

Following the path of parallel development (Source: Wikipedia)

If we must make some comparisons between Wi-Fi 6 and 5G, from an application perspective, Wi-Fi 6 is superior to 5G in terms of spectrum, device ecosystem, network cost, ease of deployment, flexibility, and management requirements. . The shortcomings of Wi-Fi 6 are also obvious. It does not perform well in large-scale outdoor coverage scenarios and cannot meet ultra-low latency requirements (

5G and Wi-Fi6

Convergence or competition?

With 5G being heavily invested in media and advertising, one might expect that the next generation of wireless networks in the enterprise will revolve almost entirely around 5G, with Wi-Fi 6 being supportive at best. Is this really the case? Not so, as revealed in Deloitte’s 2021 Global Advanced Wireless Survey of 437 networking executives from nine countries. Of the respondents, 45% of enterprises are testing or deploying both Wi-Fi 6 and 5G in order to enable their advanced wireless network deployments. Nearly all respondents (98%) expect their organizations to use both technologies within three years. Over the next three years, 48 ​​percent of business spending on wireless networks will be on Wi-Fi and 52 percent on cellular technology.

Wi-Fi 6 and 5G share some similarities, such as their ability to achieve gigabit speeds and low latency. But the differences are also stark, mainly in terms of coverage, mobility support and cost.

Because of the lower cost of deployment, maintenance and expansion, especially if the access point needs to serve a larger number of users, Wi-Fi technology is well suited for smaller, less expensive local area networks and has become a popular choice in home and business environments. leading technology. Our commonly used PCs, tablets, smartphones, streaming media devices, televisions and printers are connected to the Internet almost exclusively by Wi-Fi technology.

While cellular networks such as 5G are mainly used for indoor and outdoor wide area networks, devices that move across large geographic areas, in addition to smartphones, 5G is now being deployed on a large scale in connected cars, smart cities, and even large-scale manufacturing operations. Given the extensive experience operating cellular networks, network providers can provide critical functions such as network security, privacy, etc. For some mission-critical services, such as those that require protection from device interference, 5G has clear advantages.

With the better integration of Wi-Fi 6 and 5G, network operators are also starting to direct and optimize traffic on both networks, for example, by shifting more traffic to Wi-Fi networks to reduce congestion on cellular networks. As 5G’s key partner in advanced wireless solutions, Wi-Fi 6 will play an important role in maximizing benefits for businesses through next-generation wireless connectivity. From the perspective of complementary advantages, most of the application scenarios we see are the mixed use of 5G and Wi-Fi6 technologies.

According to IDC, by 2025, more than 152,000 Internet of Things (IoT) devices will be connected per second globally. The advent of Wi-Fi 6 and 5G promises reliable connectivity for mission-critical IoT devices.

in retail business

Analyzing the data collected (purchasing history, inventory trends, and footholds, etc.), forecasting what products should be displayed where, how much of each product should be displayed, and how to develop the products, these decisions will become a breeze.

in manufacturing

Advanced wireless networks consisting of 5G and Wi-Fi 6 play a key role in connecting machines and equipment to drive smart factory solutions.

in healthcare

As 5G and Wi-Fi 6 work together, the healthcare sector can introduce telesurgery and remote diagnosis.

in supply chain and logistics

The rollout of 5G and Wi-Fi 6 has really changed the last mile interaction issue with end consumers.

in the Internet of Vehicles

A connected car can provide in-car Wi-Fi to the user’s device, while the car itself is connected to a 5G cellular network.

Typically, 5G is likely to take the lion’s share of public communications, but sales of Wi-Fi 6 devices are quietly surging. According to Deloitte, shipments of Wi-Fi 6 devices will surpass 5G devices by at least 2.5 billion in 2022, compared with about 1.5 billion 5G devices. Smartphones, tablets, and PCs are the most commonly used Wi-Fi 6-equipped devices, and Wi-Fi 6 is now being used on a large scale including wireless cameras, smart home devices, game consoles, wearables, and AR/VR headsets and other equipment.

The adoption of Wi-Fi 6 and 5G is seen as a strategic imperative that will usher in a new era of wireless access for businesses. With the convergence of Wi-Fi 6 and 5G, businesses can conduct business from anywhere while maintaining employee productivity and the best user experience. In 2021, the Wireless Broadband Alliance (WBA) and the Next Generation Mobile Networks Alliance (NGMN) jointly released a report highlighting the benefits of Wi-Fi6 convergence with 5G, noting that many use cases and verticals can be leveraged from both. Benefit from closer integration between technologies. In addition, 3GPP is increasingly looking to add standards to each new release to enable convergence between Wi-Fi and cellular networks. Likewise, the IEEE, which is sponsored by the Wi-Fi Alliance, has been discussing potential paths for the convergence of Wi-Fi 6 and 5G for years. Now, 83% of service providers, equipment manufacturers and enterprises worldwide will deploy or plan to deploy Wi-Fi 6/6E by the end of 2022, a key finding from the WBA’s latest cross-industry survey.

The latest development of Wi-Fi6

In April 2020, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) voted unanimously to open the 6GHz band to unlicensed users. The Wi-Fi Alliance named the version of IEEE 802.11ax running at 6GHZ or above Wi-Fi 6E. Wi-Fi 6E can provide low latency and faster data rates, and provides up to seven 160MHz channels necessary for high-bandwidth applications, it greatly expands the available spectrum of Wi-Fi 6, solves the need for billions of words Data transmission problems in applications with knot speed, such as Internet of Things, unified communications, cloud computing, AR and VR, etc.

While Wi-Fi 6 and Wi-Fi 6E are the same technology, their spectrums are different. The frequency band of Wi-Fi 6E is located at 6GHz, which helps to expand the functionality and efficiency of Wi-Fi 6. In terms of compatibility, Wi-Fi 6E access points support backward compatibility, which means that existing Wi-Fi devices can still be used. In terms of shipments, in 2021, more than 50% of Wi-Fi product shipments will be Wi-Fi 6. IDC predicts that by 2025, shipments of Wi-Fi 6 products will reach 5.2 billion, of which 41% will be Wi-Fi 6E.

With the increasing popularity of smartphones around the world, the use of Wi-Fi technology is also increasing. Additionally, governments around the world are building smart cities with public Wi-Fi networks to help various service industries such as education and healthcare. These factors have increased Wi-Fi usage in homes, offices and public spaces, increasing sales of Wi-Fi chipsets.

According to data from the Wi-Fi Alliance, Wi-Fi users will demand more efficient, reliable and secure connections in 2022, with nearly 18 billion Wi-Fi devices expected to be in use. According to the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development), by 2025, the number of households with computers worldwide is expected to increase to 1,262.47 million. The massive increase in computer usage has created a market opportunity for Wi-Fi chips.

Mordor intelligence forecasts indicate that the global Wi-Fi chipset market will grow at a CAGR of 4.4% between 2022 and 2027.More and more chip products supporting Wi-Fi 6 are on the market

The Qorvo QPF7552 is an integrated high-power front-end module (iFEM) designed for Wi-Fi 6 systems. The iFEM integrates bandBoost technology to create an easy-to-use and extremely compact solution for Wi-Fi tri-band applications that require simultaneous operation in two radios in the 5GHz band. The integrated bandBoost technology reduces the band power in the UNII1-2a to a level suitable for use on the same board. The Qorvo QPF7552 integrates a 5GHz power amplifier (PA), BandBoost BAW filter, single-pole double-throw switch (SP2T), and bypass low-noise amplifier (LNA) in a single device with high integration and small form factor.

Figure 2: Integrated high-power front-end module designed for Wi-Fi 6 systems

QPF7552 functional block diagram (Source: Qorvo)

The NXP IW612 is the industry’s first family of single-chip tri-band radios supporting Wi-Fi 6, Bluetooth 5.2 and 802.15.4, enabling simultaneous transmit and receive, bringing higher performance to smart solutions. In smart homes where Thread or Bluetooth devices need to be connected to the cloud using an integrated Wi-Fi 6 radio, the IW612 is also ideal for border router, bridge and gateway applications.

Figure 3: NXP IW612 Single Antenna Application Schematic

(Image source: NXP)

MediaTek’s latest Filogic connectivity chipset, the Filogic 830 Wi-Fi 6/6E SoC, packs multiple functions into a compact ultra-low power 12nm SoC, allowing customers to design different solutions for routers, access points and mesh systems . The SoC integrates four Arm Cortex-A53 processors running at up to 2GHz per core, processing power up to 18,000 DMIPs, dual 4×4 Wi-Fi 6/6E, connection speeds up to 6Gbps, two 2.5 Gigabit Ethernet interfaces and A series of peripheral interfaces. The Filogic 830’s built-in hardware acceleration engine is used for Wi-Fi offloading and networking for faster, more reliable connections. In addition, the chipset supports MediaTek FastPath low-latency application technology such as gaming and augmented reality/virtual reality.

Dedicated 5G

Can it replace Wi-Fi 6/6E?

In the discussion of Wi-Fi 6 and 5G, there is such a word that appears very frequently, that is Private 5G (Private 5G). As the name suggests, private 5G must be related to 5G, and since the launch of 5G, 3GPP Release 16 has introduced 5G New Radio (NR) and enhancements to the 5G core for private networks. According to 3GPP TS 22.261, the following is the definition of a private 5G network:

• Private communications: communications between two or more UEs belonging to a restricted UE set.

● Private Network: An isolated network deployment that does not interact with the public network.

● Dedicated slices: Dedicated network slices are deployed for use by specific third parties only.

Private 5G is a secure and resilient next-generation wireless private network designed for custom enterprise use cases that demand ultra-high bandwidth, speed, reliability, and ultra-low latency on secure and private networks. Since private 5G networks consist of small cells, they provide better coverage. In most cases, dedicated 5G operates on unlicensed spectrum, such as CBRS spectrum in the US. However, operators offering dedicated 5G network-as-a-service can use other available spectrum in their dedicated 5G deployments to optimize their networks. In terms of applications, dedicated 5G will initially be used primarily for critical communications, such as factory automation or operational communications across large venues such as airports or distribution centers.

Compared with Wi-Fi 6/6E, dedicated 5G is similar in spectrum ownership mode, deployment mode and business operation support functions. To this end, there is a saying in the industry that dedicated 5G will replace Wi-Fi 6/6E. The reason is: Private 5G has the same advantages as public 5G networks, such as high throughput, huge capacity, low latency, and inherent security, so private 5G has advantages over Wi-Fi 6/6E in applications.

In practice, technologists have found that this is not the case. Not only will dedicated 5G not be a full-scale replacement for Wi-Fi6/6E, but Wi-Fi 6/6E will remain an excellent access option for low-cost network deployments. First, cheap Wi-Fi 6 network equipment, installation, and maintenance costs simply cannot be achieved with 5G or dedicated 5G. Secondly, in order to achieve wider network access, Wi-Fi 6/6E has been established and has larger capacity, and its transmission speed is comparable to wired.


The benefits of Wi-Fi 6 for enterprises are obvious. It can help enterprises quickly build their own networks, and build these networks according to service changes to meet the customized needs of enterprises. For example, an enterprise establishes an office network, and a school establishes a student network access network. In addition to traditional Wi-Fi scenarios, Wi-Fi 6 is also suitable for enterprise VR/AR/4K applications, warehousing and logistics AGVs, and asset management in supermarkets and factories.

5G focuses on public networks and is deployed in scenarios or endpoints with high roaming and latency requirements, such as autonomous vehicles, drones, outdoor personal network access, and factories with ultra-low latency requirements (less than 10ms).

Wi-Fi 6 and 5G are two different technologies that complement each other. Each technology addresses a specific business need or condition. Companies with large outdoor businesses may consider 5G for their wireless network needs. The wireless needs of small and medium businesses can opt for cost-effective Wi-Fi 6 solutions. Organizations with indoor operations or identified access points may opt to use Wi-Fi 6E for their 6 GHz-capable devices. The interoperability between Wi-Fi 6/6E and 5G networks provides seamless connectivity for users’ network applications, and jointly drives the success of network innovation.

As Wi-Fi 6/6E and 5G develop, their respective application areas are bound to overlap. Despite this overlap, the two technologies will remain complementary and neither can replace the other. It is this relationship of integration, coexistence and complementarity that indirectly promotes each other’s development.

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Semiconductor industry is in deep recession, IHS says 5G is expected to reverse

The latest data from market research firm IHS Markit shows that the global semiconductor industry’s revenue in 2019 will fall by nearly 13% compared with last year, which means that the recession trend of the industry continues to worsen. But researchers at IHS Markit believe that 5G has the potential to reverse all that.

Len Jelinek, senior director of semiconductor manufacturing at IHS Markit, said that in the history of the semiconductor industry, every market downturn will end with the arrival of a certain innovative technology or product, and new technologies and innovative products can always stimulate a substantial increase in market demand. Such as the World Wide Web, iPhone, etc. Len Jelinek believes that 5G will take up this important task next. As the impact of 5G will extend far beyond the technology industry, it will change all aspects of human society, stimulate new economic activities, and drive the growing market demand for semiconductor chips.

IHS Markit expects that the global semiconductor market revenue will rebound in 2020, from $422.8 billion in 2019 to $448 billion, an increase of 5.9%. This may be a relief to the world’s top semiconductor companies such as Intel, Samsung, TSMC, Qualcomm, Broadcom, etc.

For the decline of global semiconductors in recent years, IHS Markit believes that it is mainly caused by the sharp drop in the prices of DRAM and NAND memory. Samsung also pointed out in an announcement that since the end of 2018, there has been a global oversupply of semiconductor components, which has led to declining industry profits. Samsung Electronics expects operating profit of around $6.5 billion in the third quarter of 2019, down 56 percent from $14.7 billion a year earlier.

However, the decline in 2019 should only be temporary, and the situation will be reversed in 2020. IHS Markit said that with the launch of 5G commercial services in major global markets, 5G smartphones will usher in a period of rapid growth, which will drive the semiconductor industry to resume growth. Smartphones are the largest consumer of the semiconductor industry, with global revenue expected to be $87.7 billion in 2019.

For the smartphone market, institutions such as IDC and Gartner agree with IHS Markit’s judgment that the market size will continue to decline in 2019 and return to growth in 2020. IDC expects the smartphone market to maintain a three-year downward trend in 2019, with a decline of about 2.2%, although 2020 will see a growth of 1.6%. Gartner believes that global smartphone sales in 2019 will be around 1.5 billion units, a year-on-year decrease of 2.5%. However, as 5G services enter the stage of large-scale commercial use in 2020, smartphone sales are expected to resume growth.

According to IHS Markit, the impact of 5G will be all-round, not only will it bring about an increase in smartphone sales, but also promote the development of new business models and support the digital transformation of all walks of life around the world, thereby bringing the semiconductor industry more opportunities. In the report, IHS Markit estimates that by 2035, 5G will generate $1.3-1.9 trillion in economic output in the U.S. alone — nearly as much as U.S. consumers spent on cars in 2016.

Of course, in addition to semiconductor and smartphone manufacturers, there will be more companies benefiting from the development of 5G, such as telecom operators. Operators such as Verizon and AT&T in the United States are actively deploying 5G networks, hoping to gain more opportunities for growth. Verizon expects spending on 5G to have a “significant” impact on its revenue as early as 2021.

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